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Unit 1. What is Customs?
1.1. Read and remember the words given:
Customs – таможня;
authority – полномочный орган, официальный орган;
to be responsible for – быть ответственным за что-либо;
safeguarding – обеспечение безопасности, принятие мер предосторожности;
hazardous – опасный, рискованный;
legislation – законодательство;
to enforce – навязывать, принудительно осуществлять;
immigration authority – иммиграционные власти;
to apprehend – арестовывать;
arrest warrants – постановление о задержании.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods including animals, personal effects and hazardous items in and out of a country. Depending on local legislation and regulations, the import or export of some goods may be restricted or forbidden, and the customs agency enforces these rules. The customs LEBA may be different from the immigration authority, which monitors persons who leave or enter the country, checking for appropriate documentation, apprehending people wanted by international arrest warrants, and impeding the entry of others deemed dangerous to the country.
A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the export of goods. Commercial goods not yet cleared through customs are held in a customs area, often called a bonded store, until processed. All authorized ports are recognized customs area.
Unit 2. The History of Customs
(Russia, USA, Great Britain)
2.1. Pre-text Assignments
2.1.1 Check up the meaning of the following verbs:
predate, originate, collect, purchase allow, verify, defend, create, trade, approve.
The History of Russian Customs
The current Russian word for Customs, tamozhnya, originated in the times of the Mongol-Tatar yoke. The word tamga, in Tatar, meant "a Customs tax, the official who collected it, and the stamped seal or statement verifying that it had been paid".
Each market had its tamozhnya, and the right to collect duties could be purchased from the State. This right was often acquired by powerful merchants.
The Russian Customs Service, however, predates even the Mongol Yoke. Some three centuries before, in Kievan Rus, taxes were collected for the transportation of goods through the frontiers of its individual princedoms.
Thus, Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. The first Russian Customs statute was handed down in 1667. It was strict towards foreigners, who were allowed to trade only in frontier towns on pain of confiscation. Every tsar, from Peter the Great to Nicolas II, approved laws limiting the import of foreign goods and defending Russian producers.
During the Soviet period foreign trade was strictly monopolized in the USSR and Customs neither had any significant function in the economy or played any important role.
Much was done to create Customs legislation in Russia in the period 1991–94. Two important laws were adopted: "The Customs Code of the Russian Federation" and "On Customs Tariff" All provisions and regulations in these documents are of the world standard.
Russia has the world's longest border to police, much of it newly created and has a modern, multi-functioning Customs Service. It carries out the same functions as the Customs of other developed countries: fiscal functions, regulation oа foreign trade by means of tariff and non-tariff methods, law enforcement, collection and keeping of customs statistics concerning foreign trade, etc.
fiscal function customs legislation non-tariff method
law enforcement tariff method foreign trade regulation
2.2.2. Find in the text the words which follow the verbs below:
to collect to keep out to approve to limit
to defend to bring to create to carry out
2.2.5. Match left and right.
2.5. Read the text and translate it using the dictionary.
History of the U.S. Customs Service
The U.S. Customs Service has a long history. With ratification by the necessary number of states, the Constitution of the United States went into effect on March 4, 1789. A bit more than four months later, on July 31 of that year, the U.S. Customs Service started operating, among the very first of the federal agencies to come to life. It was given a life-and-death mission.
The young nation was then on the brink of bankruptcy. The first Congress and President Washington agreed that the collection of duties on imported goods was essential if the United States were to survive.
Only a few days after Customs drew its first breath, on August 5, 1789, the power of the service went from theory to reality when Captain James Weeks sailed his brigatine, Persis, into New York harbor with a miscellaneous cargo from Leghorn, Italy. The duty on the cargo – the first such payment ever made to the United States Treasury – was $774.41.
While the payment was modest, it was the initial fiscal prop for a very young and shaky government. More was to come. In its first year of operation, the service collected over $2 million in duties. And for the next 124 years – until that moment in 1913 when the amendment authorizing the income tax was approved – customs remained a major source of revenue for the federal government. Thus the Customs Service, especially in the early years of the nation, proved the truth of that profound maxim: "the revenue of the state is the state."
As described in the strategic plan of the U.S. Customs, the agency faces five distinct strategic challenges. They are: the continued threat of narcotics smuggling, terrorists, the growth of world trade, the proliferation of trade agreements and general public resistance to increasing the budget of the federal government.
124 $2 million 1913 March 4 $774.41 1789
2.5.2. Match these statements as true or false:
5) The U.S. Customs Service was among the very first of the federal agencies to come to life.
2.6. Do you know that on a typical day, U.S. Customs and Border Protection ...
Processes more than:
1.1 million passengers and pedestrians, including 724,192 aliens, 64,432 truck, rail, and sea containers, 2,639 aircraft, 365,079 vehicles, 75,734 merchandise entries, and collected $74 million in revenue
Executes more than: Refuses entry of:
135 arrests at ports of entry 1,237 non-citizens at our ports of entry
3,179 arrests between ports of entry 54 criminal aliens attempting to enter
the United States
Seizes an average of:
2,313 pounds of narcotics in 131 narcotic seizures at our ports of entry 3,634 pounds of narcotics in 24 seizures between our ports of entry $205,576 in currency; 193 firearms; 49 vehicles between our ports of entry 4,224 prohibited plant materials or animal products, including 189 significant agriculture pest interceptions at our ports of entry.
Rescues more than: Intercepts more than:
4 illegal crossers in dangerous 210 fraudulent documents
conditions between our ports of entry 1 traveler for terrorism/national
security concerns; 1 stowaway
History of the UK Customs Service
In the Kingdom of England, customs duties were typically part of the customary revenue of the king, and therefore did not need parliamentary consent to be levied, unlike excise duty, land tax, or other forms of taxes.
The Board of Customs, responsible for collecting His or Her Majesty's Customs, had a very long history. Originally, the term customs meant any customary payments or duties of any kind (for example, to the king, or a bishop, or the church), but later became restricted to duties payable to the king on the import or export of goods. The centralised English customs system can be traced to the Winchester Assize of 1203-4, in the reign of King John, from which time customs were to be collected and paid to the State Treasury. Legislation concerning customs can be traced to King Edward I. Under the nova custuma in 1275, Collectors of Customs were appointed by Royal patent and, in 1298, custodes custumae were appointed in certain ports to collect customs for the Crown. The first Customs officers were appointed in 1294, and later on included Geoffrey Chaucer, Thomas Paine, Robert Burns and Richard Whittington (also known as Dick Whittington).
A Board of Customs was effectively created by ordinance on 21 January 1643, under which the regulation of the collection of customs was entrusted to a parliamentary committee.
Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) (Welsh: Cyllid a Thollau Ei Mawrhydi), the part of Board of Customs, is a non-ministerial department of the British Government primarily responsible for the collection of taxes and the payment of some forms of state support.
HMRC was formed by a merger of the Inland Revenue and Her Majesty's Customs and Excise and came into formal existence on 18 April 2005. The department's logo is the St. Edward's Crown enclosed within a circle.
2.8.1. Find in the texts some sentences in the Active Voice, copy them into your exercise books, give simple grammar analysis of these sentences.
2.8.2. Find in the text some sentences in the Passive Voice, copy them into your exercise books, give simple grammar analysis of these sentences.
2.8.4. Read the following text and fill in the gaps with suitable words given below:
The U.S. Customs and Border Protection Mission Statement
We are the ….. of our Nation's borders. We are America's frontline.
We …… the American homeland at and …….. our borders.
We …… the American public against terrorists and the instruments of terror.
We steadfastly enforce the laws of the United States while our Nation's economic security through lawful international trade and travel.
We serve the American public with ….., integrity and professionalism.
safeguard guardians beyond protect fostering vigilance
History of Russian Passports and Citizenship
In the 16th–17th centuries it 1) (be) necessary to obtain a special document from the tsar which 2) (give) permission to go abroad, since departure from the country was strictly limited. During the reign of Peter the Great hundreds of young Russians 3) (go) to Western Europe to study. But by the end of the epoch of Catherine the Great, the State put a lot of obstacles to foreign travel because of the fear of revolutionary ideas that 4) (can) come from Europe.
Nicholas I 5) (forbid) the education of children abroad and, consequently, created lots of work for foreign teachers in Russia. It was only Alexander II who
6) (allow) youths to study abroad after reaching age 17. Other restrictions were cancelled in 1881. Young people under age 20 were allowed to leave Russia only if they 7) (have) serious reasons to go, such as education, medical treatment or trade. The Russian Empire had no domestic passports. They 8) (be) made only for travel abroad and were valid for 5 years. Every 6 years anyone, who was absent from Russia, had to pay a tax, equal to 15 roubles.
After 1917 the practice of 1) (issue) passports for travel abroad remained the same. They were valid for 6 months and then could be 2) (prolong) for an-other half a year or even a longer period but only by special solicitation. The control over all those who crowed the border was very strict. 3) (accord) to the Rules 4) (adopt) in 1922, one could go abroad only by permission of a special governmental department.
At the same time, 5) (gain) the Russian citizenship in 1918 was very simple: a man needed only to apply to the Department of Foreign Affairs. It was only in 1921 that the government took away the citizenship of all those people who had left the country before the revolution and who had been living abroad for five years.
The USSR was created in 1922 and in 1924 Soviet citizenship was introduced. Passports were 6) (give) only to those who went abroad. In 1925 three types of documents appeared: diplomatic passports (green), official ones (for those who went abroad for business, they were blue) and passports for other citizens (red).This system was 7) (maintain) almost till the end of the 20th century. The situation 8) (concern) domestic passports is also worthy of our attention. After 1917 everybody's identity could be 9) (establish) by any document with a photo and a stamp. Until 1923 issuing such documents was a very simple process: every governmental organization had the right lo prepare them. Nevertheless, by the end of the 1920s this anarchy could not be supported anymore and a special commission was 10) (create). The government aimed at resolving three problems at the same time. First of all, to not allow people 11) (live) in the countryside to leave their homes, secondly, to do the same with people m cities and, finally, to control and persecute "enemies" of the Soviet regime.
But passports were not given to everyone: only lo inhabitants of cities,workers, and those who lived in a sovkhoz: People in the countryside had nopassport and were 12) (prohibit) to leave their village for more than five days.
Citizens who were living abroad would not take their interior passports with them. If somebody planned to leave forever, he had to give his documents to a special department.
Unit 3. At the Customs
3.1. Pre-Text Assignments.
3.1.1. Practice the reading of the following words and guess their meaning:
cross, duty-free, license, border, quota, luggage, official, receipt, porter, personal, journey, declare, article, permission, regulation, item.
smuggler restriction particular traveler declaration
liable writing importation different carefully
3.1.3. Check up the meaning of the following verbs:
to smuggle to include to take out cross to
to stipulate to declare to name to exceed
regulations restrictions duty (duties)
таможенные таможенные таможенные
правила ограничения пошлины
At the Customs House
The moment a traveller crosses the border their luggage is taken to the customs-house by porters. Every country has its own customs regulations, which stipulate what articles are liable to duty and what are duty-free.
Sometimes an article which falls under customs restrictions and is liable to duty is allowed in duty-free if the traveller does not exceed a certain fixed quota. These are listed in a duty-free quota list. Customs restrictions also include a prohibited articles list. This is a list of items which may not be brought into a country or taken out of it. An official paper (from the proper authorities) giving permission to take items, which fall under special customs restrictions, in or out of a country is known as an import or export license.
If the traveller has any item which comes under customs restrictions he is asked to declare it. That is, he is asked to name the item, stating its value and other particulars. The declaration is made either orally or in writing on a special form. The practice seems to vary in different countries. Upon payment of duty the traveller is given a receipt. As a rule personal effects are duty-free.
It sometimes happens that a passenger's luggage is carefully gone through in order to prevent smuggling. The formalities at the customs-house usually take some time. Only after passing through the customs does one realize that their journey is drawing to an end (or beginning, as the case might be).
6) What is a duty-free item?
7) What do we mean by saying that something is an item liable to duty?
8) Why is smuggling punishable by law?
9) What does the Customs Inspected stamp stand for?
10) Can you name some of the "personal effects" one usually takes along
on a journey?
3.2.3. Give the English equivalents of the following collocations:
попадать под ограничения, осматривать (багаж), заниматься контрабандой, таможенный сбор, таможенная декларация, таможенное управление, личные вещи, пройти таможенный досмотр, таможенные правила, таможенные ограничения.
Pat arrived at the airport two hours ago to catch her plane to Tokyo. At the check-in-counter, a ticket agent looked at her ticket and her passport and her baggage was checked in (weighted on the scales). Pat's suitcases were very heavy, so she had to pay an excess baggage charge (amount of money for additional weight).
Next she was given a boarding pass (a ticket that allows her to get on the plane). The boarding pass has a seat number written on it, and Pat was given a window seat in the non-smoking section. Her suitcases were labeled and sent off to be loaded into the hold of the airplane.
While waiting for the flight to be called, Pat goes to the newsstand to buy a newspaper. Then she goes through the security check, where her carry-on luggage (the bags she is keeping with her on the plane) is searched. Then Pat goes into the duty-free shop where she has a chance to buy some things cheaply. The goods she buys here are cheap because they are not taxed.
излишек, превышение (багажа) —
–– load (v)
–– hold (n)
посадочный талон ––
–– departure lounge
–– conveyor belt
–– to check in
–– security check
–– carry-on luggage
Airport Tests Passenger Eye Ids
Heathrow Airport is testing a new hi-tech identity system which examines a passenger's eye, rather than their passport as they go through immigration control. Heathrow is the first UK airport to carry out a large-scale trial of the iris recognition technology, which was unveiled at the airport last Friday.
The aim is to speed up the movement of passengers through the terminal and detect illegal immigrants.
A total of 2,000 passengers who frequently fly from North America to Heathrow on Virgin and British Airways flights are taking part in the five-month trial.
Each passenger will have an image of one of their eye's iris stored on computer. Instead of showing their passport on arrival they will go into a kiosk where in seconds a camera will check that the pattern of their iris matches computer records. If so a barrier will automatically open.
The trial will test the technology and gauge passenger reaction.
identity (n) sameness, who or what a particular
person or thing is;
iris (n) the round, coloured part of the eye;
gauge (v) to judge the worth, meaning , etc.,
of something or somebody's actions;
large-scale (adj) long, sophisticated;
trial (n) experiment;
pattern (n) model , sample;
to match (v) to be like or suitable for use;
image (n) a picture, a copy, (esp. in mind);
record (n) a written statement of facts, amounts,
to detect (v) to find out, to notice
3.5.1. Find in the texts some sentences in the Active Voice, copy them into your exercise books, give simple grammar analysis of these sentences.
3.5.2. Find in the texts some sentences in the Passive Voice, copy them into your exercise books, give simple grammar analysis of these sentences.
3.5.4. Supply prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
not liable to duty, to be subject to customs restrictions, to inspect one's luggage, to be released by the customs, to go through the customs, to have a greater amount of something.
Unit 4. Customs Declaration. Customs Clearing
4.1.1. Read the following word and phrase list. Try to memorize all the words and word-groups:
^ citizenship, purpose, submit, separately, monetary, valuables, false, flight, middle, bond, currency, icons, precious, antiques.
4.1.5. Check up the meaning of the following verbs:
keep, render, arrive, submit, provide, require, purchase, list, signs.
commercial, currency, processed, duration, payment, properly, renewable, printed, recording, appliances, valuables, including.
4.2. Translate the following text in the written form using the dictionary
Tips for Travelers
Once your travel plans are confirmed, check the expiration date of your passport. It's also a good idea to make photocopies of the data page; leave one copy with someone at home and keep another with you, separated from your passport.
If you lose your passport, promptly call the nearest embassy or consulate and the local police; having a copy of the data page can speed replacement. You need only a valid passport to enter Great Britain for stays of up to 90 days.
When shopping, keep receipts for all of your purchases. Upon reentering the country, be ready to show customs officials what you've bought. If you feel a duty is incorrect, appeal the assessment. If you object to the way your clearance was handled, get the inspector's badge number.
In either case, first ask to see a supervisor, then write to the port director at the address listed on your receipt. Send a copy of the receipt and other appropriate documentation. If you still don't get satisfaction you can take your case to customs headquarters.
Keep for the duration of your stay in Russia or abroad. Not renewable in case
Persons giving false information in the Customs Declaration or to Customs officer shall render themselves liable under laws of Russia.
Country of destination
Purpose of visit (business,tourism,private,etc.)
My luggage (including hand luggage) submitted for Customs Inspection consists of .... pieces. With me and in my luggage I have:
1. Weapons of all descriptions and ammunition
2. Narcotics and appliances for the use there of………………………………….
3. Antiques and objects of art (painting, drawings, icons, etc.) …………………
4. Russian currency, Russian State Loan bonds, etc ……………………………..
5. Currency other than Russian rubles (bank notes, exchequer bills, coins), payment vouchers (cheques, bills, letters of credit, etc.), securities (shares, bonds, etc.) in foreign currencies, precious metals (gold, silver, platinum, metals of platinum group) in any form or condition, crude and processed natural precious stones (diamonds, brilliants, rubies, emeralds, sapphires and pearls), jewellery and other articles made of precious metals and precious stones, and scrap thereof, as well as properly papers:
Description Amount/Quantity For official use
In figures/in words
Russian rubles, other currency, payment vouchers, valuables and any objects belonging to other person………..
I am aware that, in addition to the objects listed in the Customs Declaration, I must submit for inspection: printed matter, manuscripts, films, sound recordings, postage stamps, graphics, etc. plants, fruit, seeds, live animals and birds, as well as raw foodstuffs of animal origin and slaughtered fowl.
I also declare that my luggage sent separately consists of ... pieces.
Date .... Owner of luggage (signed) ....
customs use only Department of the
Treasury United States Customs
Each arriving traveller or responsible family member must provide the following information (only ONE written declaration per family is required):
7. (a) Country or Citizenship………………………………………..
8. (b) Country of Residence
9. (a) U.S. Address (Street Number /Hotel/Mailing Address in U.S.) ….
10. (b) U. S. Address (City)………………………………………………….. ..
11. (c) U.S. Address (State) ……
12. Countries visited on this trip prior to U.S. arrival………………………….
13. The purpose of my (our) trip is or was Business Personal
(Check one or both boxes, if applicable)
14. I am (We are) bringing fruits, plants, metals, food, soil, birds, snails, other live animals, wildlife products farm products; or, have been on a farm or ranch outside the U.S. Yes No
15. I am (We are) carrying currency or monetary instruments over $ 10.000 U.S., or foreign equivalent Yes No
16. I have (We have) commercial merchandise
U.S. or foreign (Check one box only) Yes No
17. The total value of all goods, including commercial
merchandise, I/we urchased or acquired abroad …………..
and am/are bringing to the U.S. is: (U.S. Dollars)
I have read the notice on the reverse and have made a truthful declaration.
Signature Date (day/month/year)
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